May 22, 2024


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7 Key elements to do when citing footnote and endnote in a thesis

footnote and endnote in a thesis

Footnote and endnote are two types of citation that appear at the bottom of a page. Footnotes appear as superscript numbers and indicate where to find more information in the text. Endnotes are placed at the end of each chapter and provide full bibliographic details for sources used in the chapter. In this article, we’ll look closely at how you should cite footnote and endnote in your thesis.

What are footnotes and Endnotes?


Footnotes are use to provide additional information about a topic or quote within the body of your paper. The footnote is place at the bottom of the page on which it appears. The footnote should be number consecutively throughout your paper and should always reference its source by author, title, page number as well as year.


Endnotes are similar to footnotes but they appear at the end of your paper rather than at the bottom of each page where they are reference. The numbering of endnote entries should also be consecutive throughout your paper, but they do not have to be number in order from 1 through n.

When citing sources in your thesis, you should use both footnotes and endnotes to cross-reference information so readers can easily find where each piece of information was (if they want). It is also good practice when citing sources to include one citation within another because it gives readers more details about why you used that particular piece of information and how reliable it might be (or not). Using footnotes and endnotes correctly is a complicated procedure and students usually make mistakes while doing so. In order to correctly use footnotes and endnotes in your thesis, follow the below mentioned strategies or get help from online thesis writing services.

7 things to follow when citing Footnote and Endnote

Use the footnote function of your word-processing program

There are two basic ways to write footnotes: using a word processing program, you can use the footnote function to insert footnotes; if you are using a word processor, then you can simply insert your footnote at the bottom of the page by pressing a button on your keyboard. Some people prefer to use footnotes, while others prefer endnotes. This is a matter of personal preference. If you want to use footnotes, then consider using them at the end of each chapter or section and provide full bibliographic details for sources used in the chapter.

Place the citation number at the end of the sentence

It is essential to place the citation number at the end of the sentence. The superscript format is use for these footnotes, and you should start with number 1 when you reference your sources.

In addition, you have to ensure that they are place in a separate section or paragraph from where they are reference. This will help readers easily identify which source was reffere in each sentence.

Use superscript format and start with the number 1

a. To cite a footnote, write “1” (or any other number) at the end of your sentence, before punctuation marks (such as periods).

Example: In this case, we have reduced our cost by 20%. This is beneficial to us because it allows us to make more profit from our products.

To cite an endnote, put superscript numbers within parentheses after the entire citation in a sentence; do not use commas or periods inside parentheses when citing an endnote!

Place the text of the note immediately after the citation number

You should indent the first line of your note by at least one tab or space (or two, depending on your formatting preferences) from any other paragraph in your paper. This is important because if you don’t do this, it can be difficult to read and understand when looking at a document that has many citations within it. You should also double space between each line of text in a footnote or endnote.

Don’t italicize or bold any words within these notes—this will only distract readers from what they actually care about: learning more information about what was said in that quote!

Finally, don’t underline anything either; just leave everything as normal black font on its own line so that everyone can read what needs to be read without having their attention pull away by something else entirely unrelate (like underline words).

Use a shortened citation in subsequent notes

In subsequent notes, use the same shortened citation number for each note.

If possible, use the same shortened citation in subsequent notes. If you need to shorten a different phrase from your original footnote, then add a comma after it and follow with “additional text.” For example:

“Smith’s work on gender and sexuality has been useful for me (additional text)”

Keep in mind that notes should not be include in the body of your paper. They are there to provide support and information only, so use them sparingly.

Include full bibliographic information in an alphabetized reference list at the end of your document

To cite a work in your paper, include an alphabetized reference list of all sources at the end of your document. This section should be titled “References.”

Include full bibliographic information for each source in this section, including:

  • title (if available)
  • author name(s) (if available)
  • date of publication publisher (if available) page numbers (if available) If you are citing a source that does not have page numbers, such as a website or government document, indicate the location of the information in parentheses after your citation.
  • Observe special formatting conventions for notes in Turabian/Chicago style.

In the Turabian/Chicago style, footnotes are place at the end of a passage and number consecutively throughout the document. Endnotes may also be use if desired; however, they should not be number continuously with footnotes but instead begin with 1 again (thus having one number higher than that of footnotes).

Footnotes in this system cite sources by author’s last name, short title of work cited (“Title”), page number(s) where it can be found in an edition or translation that has already been publish (e.g., “Page numbers”).

Endnote citations include full bibliographic information: author(s), title(s), book chapter (if applicable), and other relevant details like edited volume titles follow by page numbers for where it was cite within those works.


The takeaway message is that footnotes and endnotes are important to the quality of your thesis. They can help readers understand your sources, where you got information, and how you interpreted it. These elements also provide credibility to your argument by substantiating your claims with outside sources, which helps to prove that what you’re saying is accurate.

The takeaway lesson is that in order to cite properly and accurately in any writing project, it’s important first and foremost to be familiar with the style guide that applies specifically to your discipline or subject area. This means reading through the entire manual—or at least reviewing all relevant sections on citing references before getting into anything else!


Now, you have an idea about main strategies of citing footnote and endnote in your thesis. The key thing to remember is that each time you cite something, make sure that it has corresponding evidence (footnote and endnote). Once again, we recommend using superscript formatting with numbers at the end of sentences as opposed to using italics or underlining text. This will allow readers who don’t have access to electronic version of articles still be able read what they need without confusion—and it will make your thesis look more professional overall!